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巴黎歌劇院,一場延續百年的視覺盛宴

更新時間:2019/9/18 20:16:07 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

Behind the Curtain at the Paris Opera
巴黎歌劇院,一場延續百年的視覺盛宴

The most breathtaking subway exit in the world may be the one at Place de l’Opéra in Paris. Its final steps lead to a postcard-ready view of the sensational Palais Garnier, the love-it-or-hate-it theater with a Baroque, Renaissance and all-around garish pastiche that overwhelms and enchants at every turn.

世界上最驚心動魄的地鐵出口,可能是在巴黎歌劇院廣場站。最后幾級臺階,通往宛如明信片般壯美的巴黎加尼埃歌劇院(Palais Garnier),這是一座讓人或愛或恨的劇場,是巴洛克、文藝復興全方位華麗集大成之作,每個角度都讓人震撼和著迷。

It was designed by Charles Garnier — you can find a gaudy monument to him outside — and built between 1861 and 1875. Until 1989, it housed both the Paris Opera and the Paris Opera Ballet, until nearly all the opera productions moved to the Garnier’s antithesis: the coldly modern, widely reviled Opéra Bastille.

它由夏爾·加尼埃(Charles Garnier)設計——你可以在外面找到一座他的俗麗紀念碑——建于1861年至1875年。在1989年之前,這里一直是巴黎歌劇團(Paris Opera)和巴黎歌劇芭蕾舞團(Paris Opera Ballet)駐地,直到幾乎所有的歌劇作品都搬到了加尼埃的對立面:帶有冷酷的現代風格、廣受詬病的巴士底歌劇院(Opéra Bastille)。

But the Garnier has always been so much more than just an opera house. It’s essential to the identity of Paris, like the Notre-Dame or Arc de Triomphe. It has transcended further to the realm of pop culture, inspiring Gaston Leroux’s 1910 potboiler novel “The Phantom of the Opera” — and the 1980s Andrew Lloyd Webber megamusical, adding to the thriller an over-the-topness matched only by the opera house itself.

但是,一直以來,加尼埃不僅僅是一座歌劇院。它對巴黎的身份至關重要,就和圣母院或凱旋門一樣。它已經超越了流行文化的范疇,啟發了加斯頓·勒魯(Gaston Leroux)的1910年通俗小說《歌劇魅影》(The Phantom of the Opera)——以及1980年代安德魯·勞埃德·韋伯(Andrew Lloyd Webber)的超級音樂劇,為這個驚悚故事增添了一種只有歌劇院本身才能與之媲美的極致感。

Step inside, though, and it’s immediately clear why the Garnier has cast a spell for so long. No space is left undecorated: the Grand Staircase seemingly stolen from a storybook, the Salon de la Lune’s and Salon du Soleil’s lamps reflected in facing mirrors to infinity. And the Grand Foyer’s Baroque furnishings — ornate columns, multitiered chandeliers, a painted ceiling — are enough to make you faint or feel, for one night, like the star of your own fairy tale.

不過,一旦走到內部,你會立刻明白為什么加尼埃的魅力可以如此恒久。所有空間都經過精心裝飾:中央大樓梯好像從故事書里偷來,月亮沙龍和太陽沙龍的燈光在相對的一面面鏡子中交相輝映,無窮無盡。大門廳里的巴洛克式裝潢——華麗的柱子、多層枝形吊燈和彩繪天花板——足以讓你昏厥,或者讓你在整夜里都感覺自己就像童話故事中的主人公。

In the nearly 150 years since the Garnier opened, the building has been updated repeatedly, including electric lighting being installed in the 1880s. Lamps in costume storage add a touch of the modern to an otherwise thoroughly antique space, though now the backstage rooms are devoted mostly to ballet productions, such as the past season’s revival of Rudolf Nureyev’s “Swan Lake.”

在加尼埃歌劇院落成后的近150年里,這座建筑一直在不斷更新,包括1880年代安裝的電燈。服裝儲藏間的燈具為這個原本古色古香空間增添了一絲現代氣息,不過現在后臺的房間主要用于芭蕾舞作品,比如上一季魯道夫·努列耶夫(Rudolf Nureyev)《天鵝湖》(Swan Lake)的復排版。

Among the theater’s most famous fixtures are the chandelier and the painted ceiling that surrounds it — originally by Jules Eugène Lenepveu, then replaced in 1964 with a new, sprawling work by Marc Chagall depicting scenes from operas by Mozart, Wagner and more.

劇院最著名的設施之一是枝形吊燈和環繞它的彩繪天花板——最初由朱勒·尤金·勒內弗(Jules Eugène Lenepveu)繪制,1964年被馬克·夏加爾(Marc Chagall)的一幅巨大的新作所取代,后者描繪了莫扎特、瓦格納等人歌劇中的場景。

The theater is ornately grand, yet relatively intimate, with a seating capacity of less than 2,000 — roughly half that of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. Its count of plush burgundy seats is at its peak in the final moments before every show, when the center aisle closes, filled in with more chairs that fold out to leave no space unused.

這座劇院富麗堂皇,但相對私密,僅可容納不到2000人——大約是紐約大都會歌劇院的一半。每一場演出開始前的最后一刻,紫紅色長毛絨座椅的數量都會達到最大值,那時中間的通道被關閉,放滿折疊椅,不留下任何閑置的空間。

The ballets scored by Tchaikovsky get mixed treatment at the Garnier. In 2016, the director Dmitri Tcherniakov reunited “The Nutcracker” with its original double-bill partner, the opera “Iolanta,” for an evening with a plot that runs through both works, set amid 20th-century Soviet life. At first glance, the Nureyev staging of “Swan Lake,” which premiered in 1984, looks far more traditional, with hallmarks of 19th-century classicism like white tutus and feathered headpieces. But Nureyev added a dark, distinctly modern Freudian dimension to one of ballet’s most famous tragedies.

柴可夫斯基譜曲的芭蕾舞劇在加尼埃得到了不同的處理。2016年,導演德米特里·切爾尼亞科夫(Dmitri Tcherniakov)將《胡桃夾子》和它最初的套演劇目——歌劇《約蘭塔》(Iolanta)重新組合在一起,在同一個晚上演,故事情節貫穿了兩部作品,背景都是20世紀的蘇聯生活。乍看上去,1984年首次登臺的努列耶夫版《天鵝湖》要傳統得多,帶有19世紀古典主義的特征,比如白色短裙和羽毛頭飾。但是,努列耶夫為這部芭蕾史上最著名的悲劇之一增添了黑暗、鮮明的現代弗洛伊德主義色彩。

For the Paris Opera’s 350th anniversary this year — and the 30th anniversary of its modern house on Place de la Bastille — the company commissioned a series of installations, “Saturnales,” by the French artist Claude Lévêque. One of them, created with the Paris Opera’s workshop, is a pair of gilded tires that blend seamlessly with, and even add rhythm to, the Garnier’s Grand Staircase.

今年是巴黎歌劇團成立350周年紀念,也是它在巴士底廣場的現代場地落成30周年。為了慶祝這個日子,劇團委托法國藝術家克勞德·萊維克(Claude Leveque)創作了一系列裝置作品《農神節》(Saturnales)。其中之一是由巴黎歌劇團的工作室制作的一對貼金輪胎,它與加尼埃的中央大樓梯天衣無縫地融合在一起,甚至給它增加了一種節奏。

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