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原因揭秘:鯊魚攻擊人類的真正動機

更新時間:2019/9/30 20:16:27 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

The real reasons why sharks attack humans
原因揭秘:鯊魚攻擊人類的真正動機

The crystal-clear water beneath 13-year-old Hannah Mighall darkened for a moment. She was sitting astride her surfboard, enjoying the warmth of the sun as she and her cousin waited for the next wave in Tasmania’s idyllic Bay of Fires. Behind them the brilliant-white sandy beach was largely deserted and the surfing had been good so far.

13歲的梅格爾(Hannah Mighall)身下晶瑩澄澈的海水暫時變暗了。她正坐在沖浪板上,享受著溫暖的陽光,她和表哥在塔斯馬尼亞島(Tasmania)田園詩般的海灣中等待著下一次的沖浪。在他們身后,明亮的白色沙灘上散落著稀疏的人影,到目前為止,沖浪活動順利而快樂。

The sudden shadow below made Mighall instinctively lift her feet – balls of kelp often broke off nearby rocks and drifted in the surf. “They are really slimy so I hated touching them,” she says.

突然,梅格爾腳下出現了陰影,她本能地抬起了腳——海藻球經常從附近的巖石上脫落,漂進海水中。她說:“它們黏糊糊的,我討厭觸碰它們。”

But then something took hold of her leg.

但有什么東西抓住了她的腿。

“It didn’t hurt at first, it was like something gently grabbed hold of me and then I was in the water,” says Mighall.

梅格爾說:“開始并不疼,只是有東西輕輕抓住了我,然后我就掉進了水里。”

To those who witnessed what happened, however, it was anything but gentle. The water around Mighall exploded as a five-metre-long great white shark latched onto her right leg, lifted her off the surfboard and shook her in the air before disappearing underwater.

然而,對目睹發生這一切的人來說,這是一件可怕的事。當時有一條5米長的大白鯊咬住了她的右腿,把她從沖浪板上抬了起來,在水中搖晃著,然后又快速消失在水面之下,周圍炸開了水花。

“It took a few seconds for me to realise it was a shark,” she says. “When I popped back up from the water I was lying on my back but my leg was in its mouth. All I could see was my black wetsuit leg, its teeth, pink gums, teeth and the dark bit under its nose where it meets white. I thought I was having a nightmare and kept trying to blink my eyes open.”

梅格爾說:“幾秒后我意識到那是條鯊魚。當我從水里跳出來時,我仰面躺著,但我的腿在它的嘴里。我能清楚的看到,我穿著黑色潛水服的腿,還有它的牙齒和粉紅色的牙床、以及牙齒和鼻子下面的黑白分界線。我以為是在做惡夢,一直想睜大眼睛。”

Mighall’s cousin, 33-year-old Syb Mundy, who had been sitting on his own board just a few metres from her, raced over and began punching the shark in the side of its head. The shark pulled away from him and as it went underwater it let go of Mighall, lunging instead for her surfboard that was still attached by a rope to her leg.

梅格爾的表哥,33歲的曼迪(Syb Mundy),坐在離她有幾米遠的自己的沖浪板上,見狀快速劃過去猛擊鯊魚頭部。鯊魚這才離開,潛入水下,放開了梅格爾,轉而又撲向梅格爾的沖浪板,而沖浪板上有一根繩子綁在她的腿上。

With the board in its mouth, the shark pulled Mighall underwater for a second time. Moments later she popped back up to the surface with her damaged board. The animal had bitten clean through the fibreglass and foam.

鯊魚嘴里叼著沖浪板,第二次把梅格爾和所有東西都拖到了水下。過了一會兒,梅格爾帶著半塊木板浮出水面。鯊魚把沖浪板上的玻璃纖維和泡沫咬得干干凈凈。

Mundy grabbed hold of his cousin, put her on his back and paddled frantically for the shore. Earlier that day Mighall had been practicing water rescues with another girl during training with her local Surf Life Saving association, repeatedly being carried into shore as the “victim”. Now she was doing it for real.

曼迪一把抓住表妹,把她背在背上,瘋狂地劃向岸邊。當天早些時候,梅格爾還在當地沖浪救生協會的訓練中與另一名女孩練習水上救援,多次扮演“受害者”被抬上岸。現在她是真的成了受害者。

“The shark was circling us underwater,” says Mighall. “Then this wave came in and Syb just said, ‘We have got to catch this as it is going to save our lives.’ I was just tapping the water as I was terrified but he was really paddling and the wave carried us to shore. The shark came with us all the way up to the beach as there is a deep gutter running up to it. We could see its fin as it surfed in on the same wave.”

梅格爾說:“鯊魚在水下圍著我們打轉。恰在此時海浪朝岸邊涌起,曼迪說,‘我們必須順著海浪抓住機會,只有它能拯救我們。’我很害怕,也沒有力氣只是在輕拍水面,但曼迪拼力地劃水,海浪終于把我們帶到了岸邊。這條鯊魚也一路追著我們來到海灘,身下劃出一條很深的沙溝。我們與鯊魚同在一個波浪上,可以清晰地看到它的鰭。”

Luckily for Mighall, among the few people on the beach who witnessed what had happened that day were a doctor and a nurse. They gave her vital first aid while waiting for an ambulance to arrive.

對梅格爾來說是不幸中的幸運,在海灘上廖廖無幾的目擊者中,有一名醫生和一名護士。在等候救護車到達時,他們對梅格爾進行了重要的急救。

More than 10 years later, she still carries deep scars on her leg that trace the outline of the shark’s mouth. Her right leg is noticeably weaker than her left – so much so that she has to lift it with her hands when she wants to kick-start the dirt bike she rides occasionally.

10多年后,她的腿上仍留有深深的疤痕,形狀類似鯊魚嘴的輪廓。她右腿的功能也明顯弱于左腿,以至于她想要啟動偶爾騎的越野摩托車時,不得不用手幫忙把右腿抬起來。

Mighall was one of roughly 83 people around the world to be attacked unprovoked by sharks in 2009. It is a figure that has remained around the same level over the past decade. The average number of unprovoked attacks between 2013-2017, for example, was 84.

2009年全球約有83人無端遭到鯊魚襲擊,梅格爾是其中之一。在過去10年里,這個數字基本保持不變。例如,2013年至2017年間,遭襲擊的平均數為84起。

But recent research indicates that shark attacks in some parts of the world appear to be on the rise. The eastern US and southern Australia have seen shark attack rates almost double in the past 20 years, while Hawaii has also seen a sharp increase. But why?

但最近的調查顯示,鯊魚襲擊事件,在世界的某些地區有所上升。在過去20年里,美國東部和澳大利亞南部的鯊魚襲擊率翻了一番,而夏威夷的鯊魚襲擊事件更是急劇增加。這其中原因是什么?

“Shark bites are strongly correlated to the number of people and number of sharks in the water at the same time,” says Gavin Naylor, director of the Florida Program for Shark Research, which maintains the International Shark Attack File. “The more sharks and people there are in one place, the greater the chance of them bumping into each other.”

佛羅里達鯊魚研究項目主管內勒(Gavin Naylor)說:“被鯊魚咬傷的人數與水中同時出現的人數和鯊魚的數量密切相關。”國際鯊魚攻擊檔案(International Shark Attack File)記錄,“鯊魚和人類在一個地方的數量越多,它們相互碰撞的概率就越大。”

This seems like an obvious point, but when you look closer at where attacks are taking place there are some clues as to what might be going on. The large human populations along the southern coast of Australia and the eastern coast of the US mean large numbers of people enjoying the water. But southern Australia has also seen rising numbers of fur seals along its coastline, the favourite prey of great white sharks in the region.

這是一個顯而易見的結論,當仔細觀察襲擊事件發生的地點時,會發現一些線索。澳大利亞南部海岸和美國東海岸人口眾多,這意味著有大量的人享受著海水帶來的快樂。但澳大利亞南部沿海的海豹數量不斷增加,海豹正是大白鯊最喜歡的獵物。

Similarly, seal populations off Cape Cod on the coast of Massachusetts in the US have rebounded in recent years, largely thanks to protection by the US’s Marine Mammal Act introduced in 1972. This has led to increased numbers of great whites in the area too during the warm summer months as they look to feast on the seals that pull themselves out to bask on the beaches.

同樣,近年來,美國馬薩諸塞州海岸科德角(Cape Cod)附近的海豹數量也有所增加,這歸功于1972年美國出臺的《海洋哺乳動物法》(Marine Mammal Act )的保護。這同時導致了該地區大白鯊數量的增加,在溫暖的夏季,白鯊的美味海豹會在溫曖的海灘上曬太陽。

Sadly, last autumn, Massachusetts suffered its first fatal shark attack in 82 years and growing numbers of shark sightings have led to a string of beach closures.

不幸的是,去年秋天,馬薩諸塞州遭遇了82年來首次致命的鯊魚襲擊,越來越多的鯊魚襲擊事件,致使許多海灘被迫關閉。

But there is no real evidence that sharks are actively hunting humans, according to the scientists who study them. Great whites in the North Atlantic, for example, show seasonal movement patterns, migrating thousands of miles to warmer waters further south during the winter months. Some mature adults will venture out into the open ocean for months at a time, covering tens of thousands of miles and diving to depths of 1,000m as they seek prey.

但據研究鯊魚的科學家說,沒有證據表明鯊魚正在獵食人類。例如,北大西洋的大白鯊表現出季節性的遷徙模式,在冬季的幾個月里,它們會遷徙數千英里到更溫暖的南部水域。一些成年鯊會冒險進入開闊的海洋數月,覆蓋數萬英里,在尋找獵物時潛入千米深處。

“We are like helpless little sausages floating around in the water,” says Naylor. But despite being potentially such an easy meal, sharks are really not that interested in hunting humans. “They generally just ignore people. I think if people knew how frequently they were in water with sharks, they would probably be surprised.”

內勒說:“人類就像漂浮在水中無助的小香腸。”盡管這可以是鯊魚簡單的一餐,但它們對捕獵人類真沒什么興趣。“鯊魚通常是忽視人類存在的。我想,如果人們能知道和鯊魚在一起的頻率有多高,就會感到驚訝。”

However, Naylor believes that the official statistics on shark attacks are probably an underestimate. Most reports come from highly developed countries with large populations and highly active news media. Attacks on remote islands or in less developed communities probably go unreported.

然而,內勒認為,官方統計的鯊魚襲擊數據可能被低估了。大多數報道來自人口眾多、新聞媒體活躍的發達國家。而對偏遠島嶼或欠發達地區的襲擊事件可能并沒有報道和統計。

Looking at the statistics for the number of shark attacks last year can reveal some fascinating trends. Last year, there were just 66 confirmed, unprovoked attacks, roughly a 20% fall compared to previous years. Just four of these were fatal according to the International Shark Attack File, although another database of shark attacks records seven deaths. So far in 2019, there have been four fatal shark attacks.

從去年鯊魚襲擊事件的統計數字中,能發現一些趨勢。去年有66起未經證實的、無端的襲擊,與幾年前相比下降了20%左右。根據國際鯊魚襲擊檔案記錄,其中有4人死亡,盡管另一個鯊魚襲擊數據庫記錄有7人死亡。2019年到目前為止,已經發生了4起致命的鯊魚襲擊事件。

The reason for the fall – which bucks the overall trend of growing numbers of attacks – has been attributed to a sharp decline in the number of black-tipped sharks. These sharks account for many of the bites around the south-eastern US, migrating down the coast of Florida due to rising sea temperatures that have led their prey to become more dispersed.

黑頭鯊數量銳減是導致鯊魚數量下降的原因之一——這一趨勢與襲擊數量的增長趨勢大相徑庭。這些鯊魚占據了美國東南部的大部分咬傷事件,由于海水溫度上升導致它們的獵物更加分散,它們沿著佛羅里達海岸遷徙。

The findings highlight one of the key challenges in understanding why sharks bite humans. There are dozens of different species responsible for bites, each with their own unique behaviour, hunting strategies, prey and preferred habitat – although in many cases the species can be misidentified or not identified at all.

這些發現找到了鯊魚為什么會咬人的關鍵因素之一。咬人的有幾十種不同的物種,每一種都有自己獨特的行為、狩獵策略、獵物和偏好的棲息地——盡管在許多情況下,這些物種可能被錯誤識別,或者根本沒有被識別。

The majority of unprovoked attacks on humans where a species is identified involve three large culprits: the great white, tiger and bull sharks. Yet great whites – the species depicted in the film Jaws and demonised by Hollywood ever since – isn’t just a separate species, but an entirely different taxonomic order from the other two.

大多數無端攻擊人類三大禍首是:大白鯊、虎鯊和牛鯊。被好萊塢電影《大白鯊》(Jaws)妖魔化的大白鯊,不僅是一個單獨的物種,而且與另外兩個物種的分類順序完全不同。

“There are 530 different species of shark and there is so much diversity among them. You can’t just group them together,” says Blake Chapman, a marine biologist who has studied shark sensory systems and recently wrote a book on shark attacks on humans. “Different species have such a range in terms of their sensory biology, how they behave, their motivations and the habitats they live in.”

研究鯊魚感官系統的海洋生物學家查普曼(Blake Chapman),最近寫了一本關于鯊魚攻擊人類的書。他說:“世界上有530種不同的鯊魚,種類繁多。不同的物種在感官生物學、行為方式、動機和棲息地方面都有很大的差異。”

Bull sharks, for example, tend to hunt in shallow, murky water that will require them to rely less on vision and more upon their sense of smell and electroreception, which allows them to detect minute electrical fields produced by their prey.

例如,牛鯊喜歡在淺而渾濁的水中捕獵,它們很少利用視覺,主要靠嗅覺和電波感受器,它們能夠探測到獵物產生的微小電場。

“(Great) white sharks, which often hunt in very clear water use their vision a lot more and their eyesight is much better,” says Chapman. There is also some evidence that shark teeth may also function as mechanosensory structures – similar to touch – to help the animals learn more about what they are biting.

查普曼說:“大白鯊經常在非常清澈的水中捕獵,因為視線更好,它們主要利用自己的視覺來捕食。”也有證據表明,鯊魚的牙齒有一種機械感覺結構——類似于觸覺,能幫助鯊魚感知在咬什么。

Chapman believes there may be a complex set of reasons for why unprovoked attacks on humans appear to have risen in recent decades. Aside from rising human populations along coastlines, the destruction of habitat, changing water quality, climate change and shifts in prey distribution are leading sharks to gather in greater numbers at certain hotspots around the world.

查普曼認為,近幾十年來,無端襲擊人類事件的增加,有一系列復雜的原因。除了海岸線上人口數量增加外,在棲息地方面,水質、氣候及獵物分布的變化,導致鯊魚大量聚集在某些熱點地區。

In 1992, for example, there was a sudden spate of shark bites off the coast of Recife, Brazil – an area that had no unprovoked attacks for the entire previous decade. Chapman believes that heavy commercial port construction in the area damaged large areas of reef and mangrove, potentially displacing species like bull sharks, which moved to new areas like Recife in search of prey.

例如,1992年,巴西累西腓(Recife)海岸突然發生的大量鯊魚咬人事件,在過去的十年里,該海岸從未發生過鯊魚襲擊事件。查普曼認為,該地區大規模的商業港口建設,破壞了大片珊瑚礁和紅樹林,破壞牛鯊等物種的棲息地,牛鯊為了尋找獵物遷移到了累西腓等新區域。

Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean – renowned for its beautiful, unspoiled marine habitats – has seen a dramatic rise in tourism but in recent years it has also suffered a growing number of shark attacks by the bull and tiger sharks that live in the surrounding waters. Since 2011, there have been 11 fatal attacks on Reunion, mainly on surfers. Those who survive often lose limbs. Researchers have found that around two-thirds of the Reunion attacks have occurred in turbid water and swells of more than two metres – the favoured environment for bull sharks, which are thought to be responsible for most of the attacks.

印度洋上的留尼旺島(Réunion Island)以其美麗的、未受破壞的海洋棲息地而聞名,近年來,旅游業出現了突飛猛進的增長,但該島也遭受了越來越多的生活在周圍水域的牛鯊和虎鯊的襲擊。自2011年以來,留尼旺島發生了11起致命襲擊事件,主要攻擊目標是沖浪者。那些受攻擊幸存下來的人經常失去四肢。研究人員發現,約三分之二的聚集攻擊發生在渾濁的水域和超過兩米以上的海浪中,這是牛鯊最喜歡的環境,人們認為牛鯊是多數攻擊事件的禍首。

Naylor believes that in most cases, sharks bites are a case of mistaken identity.

內勒認為,多數情況下,鯊魚咬人是一種錯誤的識別。

“If these animals are chasing bait fish, the flash of the white sole of a foot from someone kicking on a board might cause them to dart at it,” he says. “When you have a large animal like a tiger or a white shark, which move quickly, a bite is far more likely to be fatal.”

他說:“如果這些動物是在追逐誘餌魚,那么當有人在一塊木板上踢來踢去,白色腳底一閃而過時,就可能導致鯊魚朝”餌料魚“猛撲過去。當被行動迅速的大型動物大白鯊咬一口時,很可能就是致命的。”

Great whites typically attack from below, delivering a massive catastrophic bite. In some cases they will withdraw while their prey bleeds to death before returning to eat.

大白鯊通常會從下方攻擊獵物,造成的傷害也是災難性的。在某些情況下,它們會在獵物流血至死后再返回覓食。

“A great white in full predatory mode is quite a sight,” says Greg Skomal, a marine biologist with the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries who has been tagging and tracking great white sharks since 2009. He should know – last year, as he was leaning over the pulpit on the bow of a research vessel while trying to tag a shark, a large great white breached directly underneath him with its jaws agape.

馬薩諸塞州海洋漁業部門的海洋生物學家斯科瑪(Greg Skomal)自2009年以來就一直在追蹤大白鯊,他說:“一只在捕食狀態下的大白鯊非常驚人。”他還記得去年,當他俯身在一艘科考船船頭的講壇上試圖標記一條鯊魚時,一條大白鯊張著大嘴尖銳的下顎從他的正下方突襲而來。

“It gave me some idea of what a seal feels like,” he says. “I’ve seen that behaviour a couple of times over the years we have been doing this. Most of the time we put a camera in the water and the sharks are completely complacent. We must have done it thousands of times. But on a handful of occasions they attack straight away, breaking the pole and the camera. It is like they are in a heightened predatory state where their senses lock onto any kind of stimuli.

“這讓我對海豹的感覺有了一些了解。”他說。“這些年來,我見過好幾次這樣的行為,大多數時候,我們把攝像頭放在水里,進行觀查,鯊魚并不在意。我們做過成千上萬次。但只有極少數情況下,鯊魚會直接攻擊,折斷桿子和攝像頭,就像它們處于一種高度掠奪狀態,它們的感官鎖定在任何一種刺激上。”

“I wonder if those strikes on people that are not merely investigative are the result of a person being in the wrong place at the wrong time with a shark in this kind of heightened state.”

“我想知道,那些襲擊事件,是不是一個人在錯誤的時間,出現在錯誤的地點,與處于這種高度緊張狀態的鯊魚在一起。"

But for every attack on a person, there are just as many stories of people who have managed to get up close to these giant predators without any harm. Take Ocean Ramsey for example, who swam alongside an enormous 20-feet-long great white off the coast of Hawaii and made headlines around the world.

但是,每次攻擊一個人時,都會有許多人接近這些巨大的食肉動物,并沒有受到任何傷害。以拉姆齊(Ocean Ramsey)為例,他在夏威夷海岸與一條20英尺長的巨大白鯊同游,并成為世界各地的頭條新聞。

Skomal and his colleagues are now using new high-resolution tags that can give the researchers minute by minute and second by second data on what the sharks are doing.

斯科瑪和他的同事們正在使用新的高分辨率標簽,這些標簽能為研究人員提供關于鯊魚每分每秒的行為數據。

He hopes it might help to answer questions about the behaviour of these animals as well as about where and how they breed. It could, ultimately, also help to tell us something about the reasons underlying attacks on humans, he says.

他們希望這些數據,能有助于回答關于這些動物行為的問題,以及它們在哪里如何繁殖的問題。他說,最終幫助我們了解攻擊人類的潛在原因。

Some researchers are turning to forensic methods to try and unravel some of the reasons behind attacks. They are developing techniques to use DNA and bite-mark patterns to identify species, while others are examining video footage of attacks and comparing these to injuries to get a better understanding of what happened.

一些研究人員正借助于法醫的方法,試圖解開襲擊背后的原因。他們正在開發利用DNA和咬痕模式來識別物種的技術,而另一些人正在研究攻擊的視頻片段,并將其與傷害情況進行比較,以便更好地了解真實狀況。

Data from shark spotters in South Africa have shown that great whites are more active near the surface, and so more likely to be seen, when water temperatures are above 14C, during a new moon and in the afternoon. Other research, however, has suggested that great whites are more successful hunters at night when there is a full moon.

來自南非鯊魚觀測者的數據顯示,大白鯊在水面附近更為活躍,所以當水溫超過14攝氏度時,在新月期間和下午更容易被發現。然而,另一項研究表明,在滿月的夜晚,大白鯊有更強的捕獵能力。

Other researchers have suggested juvenile great whites may attack humans as they hone their predatory skills, in much the same way that young lions will experiment with whatever prey they can take on.

有研究人員提出,幼年大白鯊可能會在練習捕食技能的過程中攻擊人類,就像年輕的獅子會用它們能捕捉的任何獵物進行實驗一樣。

But regardless of the reasons for attacks on humans, the risks involved are still vanishingly small. In Australia the rate of shark attacks is in the order of 0.5 attacks per million people, while in the US it is less than 0.2 attacks per million. It is worth noting that in 2018, the US figures dropped to around 0.08 attacks per million while in Australia they rose to 0.8 attacks per million people.

但不管襲擊人類的原因是什么,遇襲風險是很小的。在澳大利亞,每百萬人中發生鯊魚襲擊事件約為0.5次,而在美國,每百萬人中發生襲擊事件還不到0.2次。

These figures are blunt instruments, of course. They fail to account for the comparatively fewer numbers of people who actually use the water, and the fewer still who swim in water inhabited by dangerous sharks. But these statistics, however ridiculous or comforting they might seem, do little to dampen our fear of sharks.

當然,這些數字是粗糙的。沒有考慮實際使用這片水域的人數相對較少,而在鯊魚居住的水域游泳的人就更少。這些統計數字,無論多么可笑或令人欣慰,都無法減輕人們對鯊魚的恐懼。

“Fear has played a very important role in our evolution,” adds Chapman. “Humans don’t need to be eaten themselves by a sabre tooth tiger to learn to fear them. We learn that fear very quickly from a single story. People who have never seen a shark before fear them because we hear or watch stories about them.”

查普曼補充說:“恐懼在我們的進化過程中發揮了重要的作用。人類不需要被劍齒虎吃掉才能學會害怕它們。人們從一個案例中就學到了這種恐懼。從未見過鯊魚的人同樣害怕它們,是因為聽到或看到過有關它們咬人的故事。”

The focus on the risks that sharks pose to us also diverts attention from the far greater threat we pose to their survival due to over fishing and human-induced climate change. Some estimates suggest shark numbers in Australian waters, for example, have declined by between 75-92%.

But for those who are afraid and want to know how to protect themselves from a shark, some advise punching a biting shark in the gills or poking it in the eyes. Swimming in groups and staying close to the shore are known to reduce the risk of attacks. Wearing dark clothing and avoiding wearing jewellery can also help to reduce the chance of attracting a shark’s attention in the first place.

如何保護自己免受鯊魚攻擊,一些人建議:用拳頭打鯊魚的鰓或戳它的眼睛;集體游泳或在靠近岸邊的地方可以降低被攻擊的風險;穿深色衣服和避免佩戴珠寶首飾也能減少鯊魚的注意。

There are also a number of shark deterrents on the market that use electrical or electromagnetic pulses to interfere with the animals’ senses, but these have mixed results, according to research.

市場上也有一些使用電脈沖或電磁脈沖干擾動物感官的鯊魚威懾劑,但研究結果是好壞參差不齊。

In some areas, the local authorities themselves have taken action. Traditionally, some authorities have used shark nets to protect areas used by swimmers, but these are controversial due to the harm they do to other wildlife.

在一些地區,當地政府也采取了一些行動。傳統上,有使用鯊魚網來保護游泳者使用的水域,但這會對其它野生動物造成傷害,所以這種做法存在爭議。

Instead, smart drum lines – which use baited hooks attached to a system that sends out an alert when triggered – are now being trialled at several beach locations along the coast of western Australia. When a shark takes the bait, an alert is sent to response teams who catch, tag and then release the shark in a safer location.

取而代之的是,智能鼓線——使用帶誘餌的掛鉤連接到一個系統,當觸發時會發出警報,現正在澳大利亞西海岸的幾個海灘上試用。當鯊魚觸鉤時,系統會向應急小組發出警報,應急小組負責捕捉、標記鯊魚,然后將其釋放到更安全的地方。

Another approach being tested in Cape Town, South Africa, is an electromagnetic cable that aims to discourage sharks from approaching areas used by swimmers. Scientists have also been testing an electromagnetic barrier as an alternative to shark nets.

南非開普敦正在測試的另一種方法是,電磁電纜,目的是阻止鯊魚接近游泳者使用的水域。科學家們也在測試一種電磁屏障系統作為鯊魚網的替代品。

These could be important steps as the harm caused by shark attacks can extend far beyond their immediate victims.

這些可能是重要的步驟,因為鯊魚襲擊造成的傷害遠遠超出直接受害者的范圍。

“Shark attacks cause a lot of personal loss, but the impact they can have on the wider community is often not considered,” says Dave Pearson, one of the founders of Bite Club, which offers support to the survivors of shark attacks. He himself was attacked by a bull shark while surfing eight years ago in south-west Australia, nearly losing his arm when the animal smashed into him, bit into his forearm to the bone and carried him underwater.

為鯊魚襲擊幸存者提供支持的齒痕俱樂部(Bite Club)創始人之一皮爾森(Dave Pearson)表示:“鯊魚襲擊不僅造成個人損失,它還有更廣泛的群體影響。”8年前,他在澳大利亞西南部沖浪時,遭到了公牛鯊的襲擊,這頭公牛鯊撞到了他身上,咬傷了他的前臂,并把他帶到水下,差點讓他失去手臂。

“After my attack, lots of my friends didn’t go back into the water for a long time,” he says. “The fear spreads really quickly.”

他說:“在我受到攻擊之后,我的很多朋友在很長一段時間里,都不敢下水。恐懼蔓延得非常廣。”

On a recent visit to Ballina, a surfing hotspot in New South Wales, Australia, he saw just what a shark attack can do to a town. The area has suffered a spate of attacks, including two fatal ones on surfers in 2015.

最近,他訪問澳大利亞新南威爾士州的沖浪熱點地區巴利納(Ballina)時,親眼目睹了鯊魚襲擊對一個小鎮的影響。該地區曾遭受過一系列襲擊,包括2015年對沖浪者的兩起致命襲擊。

“I was standing there watching these perfect waves coming in but there was not one person in the water,” he says. “One of the local coffee shops said they had suffered an 85% drop in business and the surf shop couldn’t give boards away. They were both thinking about closing.”

他說:“我站在海灘上,看著美麗的海浪涌過來,但水里沒有一個人。當地一家咖啡店老板說,他們的生意下降了85%,沖浪板店里也無人需要提供沖浪板。他們都在考慮停業。”

A similar story is unfolding in Reunion where the local authorities have banned surfing and swimming in the water at certain times of the year due to fears about further shark attacks. The number of bites on humans have reduced as a result, but it has also taken its toll on the tourism industry.

在留尼汪島也發生了類似的事情,由于擔心發生更多的鯊魚襲擊事件,當地政府在一年中的某些時候禁止沖浪和游泳,鯊魚咬人事件減少了,但旅游業損失慘重。

Despite the fear and economic costs of shark attacks, like many of those who survive encounters with sharks, Hannah Mighall doesn’t want to see these animals being punished with culls or by killing those animals that stray into areas being used by humans.

盡管鯊魚襲擊造成了恐懼和經濟損失,但像許多在鯊魚襲擊中幸存下來的人一樣,梅格爾不希望看到那些誤入人類活動區域的動物遭到捕殺。

The personal effect of her attack, however, has been long lasting. While she got back onto a surfboard within six months of her attack and went “shark mad”, plastering her bedroom walls with pictures of the animals, she says her passion for surfing gradually ebbed away.

然而,鯊魚的攻擊對個人的影響也是長期的。梅格爾在遭受襲擊6個月后,才又回到沖浪板上。而且她還在臥室墻上貼滿了鯊魚的照片。由于這些動物,她說她對沖浪的熱情逐漸減弱了。

“I’d be fine and then I’d get this weird feeling and start looking around,” she explains. “I never had that before – I was a water baby and loved the water. Now I am scared of it. I used to think sharks were cool, but now I am terrified of them, although I still [have] respect for them.”

她解釋說:“我會沒事的,但現在我總會有種奇怪的感覺,不自覺的環顧四周。這在以前從來沒有過,我是一個水寶寶,我愛水。現在我害怕了。我過去認為鯊魚很酷,現在我害怕它們,盡管仍然尊重它們。”

Her shark posters have gone, as has her enjoyment of the sea. Instead she tends to prefer swimming or kayaking on rivers. But she still has the occasional nightmare about sharks.

現在,她房間墻上已經不再貼鯊魚海報了,但是她對海洋的熱情也不見了。她現在更喜歡在河里游泳或劃皮劃艇。但她偶爾還是會做關于鯊魚的噩夢。

Pearson says this is a common problem in shark attack victims.

皮爾森說,這是鯊魚襲擊受害者的一個常見問題。

“Many of them never fully recover and the psychological scars can be even greater than the physical ones,” he says. “I started getting dreams and would wake up screaming at night. I ended up seeing a psychiatrist to help me get over this.”

“他們中的許多人永遠無法完全康復,心理上的創傷甚至比身體上的創傷更大,”他說。“我開始做夢,晚上會尖叫著醒來。后來我去看了心理科醫生,才幫我克服了這個問題。”

Mighall still has the surfboard she was riding on the day of her attack, a huge toothy bite missing from one side. Like the scars on her leg, it is a reminder of what can happen on the rare occasions that sharks do choose to attack the humans who stray into their domain.

梅格爾的沖浪板還在,她被襲擊那天用的沖浪板,側邊缺了一大塊,顯示一個巨大的牙齒咬痕。就像她腿上的傷疤一樣,這提醒我們,鯊魚偶爾會選擇攻擊那些誤入它們領地的人類。

They both entitle her to fear these animals. For those who fear them without having had such a close encounter she has a sound piece of advice.

被鯊魚咬的沖浪板和她腿上的傷痕提醒梅格爾害怕這些動物。對沒有經歷過近距離接觸鯊魚的人來說,她有一個好的建議。

“If you are frightened, you can always stay out of the water.”

“如果你害怕,就不要下水。”

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